The Big Bang Theory
Early ideas about the Big Bang theory
The features of the solutions obtained according to Friedmann’s model are that the distance between two galaxies must have been zero at some point tens of thousands of millions of years ago. At that time in what we call the Big Bang, the density of the universe and the curvature of space-time were infinite. This means that the general theory of relativity, on the basis of which Friedmann’s solution is based, has taken a point in the universe.
Most of the formulas of our science are found to be smooth and fairly flat in space-time. So these formulas will be useless where the big bang, the absolute point and the curvature of space-time are infinite. This means that if an event occurs before the Big Bang, no one should use that event, because the Big Bang will make it unnecessary. That being said, if we were to find out what happened during the Big Bang, it would not be right for us to determine what happened before the Big Bang.
As far as possible we can say cautiously – no pre-Big Bang event has any effect on the model of the universe. So we can omit these things in determining the model of the universe and it can be said that the beginning of time is also the beginning of the Big Bang.
Many people do not like the idea that there is a beginning of time. Probably a factor as to why they’re doing so poorly. (Although the Catholic Church officially agreed with the Big Bang in 1951, it at first glanced at this theory). There was more initiative here to reject the Big Bang, the proposal that got the most support was – “Steady State”.
The origin of the Big Bang
It was presented in 1948 by Harmon Bungee and Thomas Gould, two Nazi refugees from Nazi-occupied Austria, along with Fred Howell of Britain, who worked on the road development during the war. The idea was that as galaxies moved away from each other, new galaxies were formed from new objects in the space between them, and this was a continuous process.
According to this stable state theory, it is necessary to change the general theory of relativity in order to establish the creation of new objects continuously. But the rate of this creation is so low-catching, one particle per cubic kilometer per year that does not deviate from the experiment. This theory is like a scientific theory in the sense that it is very simple and gives rise to a certain concept which can be observed. One of the ideas of this theory is that when we look at the universe, the number of galaxies or the number of objects less mass will always be the same in a certain volume.
In the late 1950’s and early 1960’s, a team of Cambridge astronomers led by Martin Riley published statistics on the sources of radio waves from outside. They show that most radio wave sources are out of our galaxy and have far weaker sources than strong ones. They assume that these weak sources are farther away from us and the stronger sources are farther away. Near us. It is seen that the sources present in each dense volume are less than the nearby sources than the distant sources.
Is there really a creator?
This proves that we are at the center of the vast universe where the sources are less than the other part. In other words, these sources were more numerous in the past than in the present when radio waves began their journey, which is another matter in conflict with the more stable theory. Furthermore, the discovery of small wave radiation by Penzius indicates that the density of the universe must have been higher in the past. So the theory of stable condition is sadly rejected.
Another attempt to deny the Big Bang was made by two Russian scientists – Evgeny Lifsiz and Isaac Khalatnit. They came up with an idea in early 1983. They say the Big Bang reveals a variation of the Friedman model that gives the only and almost accurate idea of the universe at all. Probably most models are pretty much the same about the universe, with only Friedman’s model revealing the Big Bang differently. In Friedman’s model, galaxies are moving away from each other. So it is surprising that at some point in the past these galaxies were in the same place.
In a real sense, the galaxies of the universe are not moving in a straight line, they have reciprocal velocities. So in reality they were not exactly in the same place, but close to each other. Presumably, the current expansion of the universe since then has not been caused by the Big Bang, but rather by a phase that has already shrunk. Since the universe was then compressed, it did not collide between objects, but passed through and then moved away from one another, which is the reason for the expansion of the present universe.
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So how can we say that the universe was really created by the Big Bang?
In his research on the model of the universe, Lifesius and Khalatani presented a fairly similar Friedman model, but presented the irregularity of the real universe and the random selection velocity of galaxies. The models they show may start with the Big Bang, although galaxies do not always move directly away from each other. But they say exceptional models are possible where galaxies are moving properly.
They argue that there may be a number of models like the Friedman model that have a different beginning than the concept of the Big Bang, and we conclude that the Big Bang did not happen here. Later they realize that there is a very general Friedmann model where the absolute point and the galaxies are not particularly dynamic. So they withdrew their argument around 1970.
The study of Lifesius and Khalatanit was valuable, as it was able to show the universe that there is an idea of an eruption যদি a relativity if the theory of relativity is correct. However, this does not solve the important question. Does the theory of general relativity, like the prophecy, foretell the event of the Big Bang in our universe and the beginning of time with it? The answer is completely different from the research of the British physicist Roger Penrose in 1975. He uses how the angles of light behave according to the general theory of relativity and in fact the gravitational force is always attractive.
Through this observation he showed that a star is compressed due to its own gravitational ball and that there are regions where its range compresses close to zero size. This proves that all objects within a star will shrink to zero volume, so the density and space-time curvature of the object will be infinite. In other words, is there an endpoint here in space-time which is known as the black hole? At first glance, the Penrose result has nothing to do with whether the Big Bang happened in the past.
However, I was a research student when Penrose published his theory and I was deeply looking for a problem to finish my PhD thesis. I realized that if the opposite direction is the direction of time, then the expansion would occur without contraction according to Penrose’s theory, and the necessary conditions for that theory would be correct. In the case of the expansion of the universe, the beginning point can be shown. According to Penrose’s theory, the universe needs to be considered as infinite space for technical reasons.
So I use it. The ultimate point here is that only if the universe expands so fast can it be avoided. Because Friedman’s model is considered the only infinite space.
Over the next few years, I developed new mathematical processes to eliminate this and other technical conditions that prove that the ultimate point must happen. The latest result was a joint publication of Penrose and me in 1970 where the proven Big Bang must have occurred which states that the general theory of relativity is correct and that the universe is wider than we observe.
In contrast to our research, a lot of research has been done by some Russians who were following the studies of Lifsiz and Khalatnit, and in part by those scientists who have worked on Einstein’s theory. Because the idea of the ultimate point faded and ruined the beauty of Einstein’s theory. However, they did not cope with the mathematical reasoning. So it is generally accepted that the universe must have a beginning.